Thursday, February 10, 2011

B.ED,ES-343: TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES.Solved Study Materials.


ES-343: TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES
Answer the following questions in 1500 words total (i.e. each in 500 words).

Q1) Define ‘Social studies’. Exlain the significance of Social Studies n secondary School curriculum.

Solution: In 1992, the Board of Directors of National Council for the Social Studies, the primary membership organization for social studies educators, adopted the following definition:
Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate content from the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world.

Social studies is taught in kindergarten through grade 12 in schools across the nation. As a field of study, social studies may be more difficult to define than is a single discipline such as history or geography, precisely because it is multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and because it is sometimes taught in one class (perhaps called “social studies”) and sometimes in separate discipline-based classes within a department of social studies.

The significance of Social Studies and secondary School curriculum.
Social studies programs have as a major purpose the promotion of civic competence-which is the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required of students to be able to assume “the office of citizen” (as Thomas Jefferson called it) in our democratic republic. Although civic competence is not the only responsibility of social studies nor is it exclusive to the field, it is more central to social studies than any other subject area in the schools.

It is important for secondary students in social studies programs to begin to understand, appreciate, and apply knowledge, processes, and attitudes from academic disciplines. But even such discipline-based learning draws simultaneously from several disciplines in clarifying specific concepts. A study of the concept of “the common good,” for example, may draw upon some or all of the following:
    * the discipline of history, to determine the concept’s origin, study primary source documents that define and address the concept, and analyze the concept’s development over time;
    * the discipline of geography, to locate where the concept was first developed, map its movement from one continent or nation to another, and recognize the power of the diffusion of ideas as an example of global linkage;
    * the discipline of _political science, _to determine the developing meaning of the concept as it is promoted or limited through existing political institutions, to study examples of actual practice related to the common good, and to acknowledge the need for citizen involvement in closing the distance between the ideal and reality;
    * the discipline of sociology, to examine the role of individuals, groups, and institutions and their relationship and responsibility to the common good, and to develop an understanding of the complexities of those relationships resulting from the diversity of beliefs, values, and structures within and among them; and
    * communication abilities from language arts/English and the fine arts to enable students to express their understanding of the concept in a personally meaningful way.
    * Social issues, such as poverty, crime, and public health, are increasingly understood to transcend the boundaries of disciplines, cultures, and nations. As these issues grow increasingly complex, the work to develop solutions demands an increasingly integrated view of scholarly domains and of the world itself.
    
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Q2) Describe major types of climate of India. Develop an instructional straegy for this content which should include instructional objectives, main teaching points, teachin-learning activities, methods and media to be used, and evaluation items.

Solution: Types of Indian climate varied due to India`s unique geography and geology that strongly influenced its climate. This is particularly true of the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds coming down from Central Asia. Although the Tropic of Cancer is the boundary between the tropics and subtropics and passes through the middle of India, the whole country is considered to be tropical one.

India is home to extraordinary types of Indian climate, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where eminent regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The climate of India is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, prohibit cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, thus keeping the volume of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.

The Thar Desert plays a role in attracting moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds between June and October that provide the majority of India`s rainfall. Four major climatic groupings rule over, into which seven climatic zones as designated by experts, are included on the basis of such features as temperature and precipitation.

The types of Indian climate are as follows -

Tropical wet - A tropical rainy climate covers regions experiencing constant warm or high temperatures, which usually do not fall below 18 °C (64 °F). The most humid is the tropical wet monsoon climate that encompasses a strip of southwestern lowlands adjoining the Malabar Coast, the Western Ghats, and southern Assam. India`s two island territories, Lakshwadeep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands also witness this climate.

Tropical dry - A tropical arid and semi-arid climate in India dominates regions where the rate of moisture loss through evapotranspiration exceeds than that from precipitation; it is subdivided into three climatic subtypes. The first, a tropical semi-arid steppe climate, predominates over the south of Tropic of Cancer and east of the Western Ghats and the Cardamom Hills. Most of western Rajasthan experiences a parched climatic regime. Rainfall is responsible for virtually all of the region`s annual precipitation, which counts upto less than 300 millimeters. Such bursts happen when monsoon winds sweep into the region during July, August, and September. East of the Thar Desert, the region running from Punjab and Haryana to Kathiawar experiences a tropical and sub-tropical steppe climate.

Subtropical humid - Most of Northeast India and much of North India are subject to a humid sub-tropical climate. They experience hot summers, temperatures during the coldest months may fall as low as 0 °C (32 °F). In most of this region, there is very little precipitation during the winter, high wind speed and summer rainfall with powerful thunderstorms associated with the southwest summer monsoon; occasional tropical cyclones also occur.

Montane - India`s northernmost lands are subject to a montane, or alpine, climate. Climates ranging from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra above the snow line can co-exist within several dozen miles of each other. Sharp temperature contrasts between sunny and shady slopes, high diurnal temperature variability, temperature inversions, and altitude-dependent variability in rainfall are also common. The northern side of the western Himalayas, also known as the trans-Himalayan belt, is a section of barren, arid, frosty, and wind-blown wastelands.

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons in India, namely the winter, summer, monsoon and post monsoon. Winter occurs between January and March. The year`s coldest months are December and January, when temperatures average around 10-15 °C (50-59 °F) in the northwest. Summer or pre-monsoon season, lasts from March to June (April to July in northwestern India). In western and southern regions, the hottest month is April; for northern regions, May is the hottest month.

Monsoon or rainy season lasts from June to September. The season is dominated by the humid southwest summer monsoon, which slowly swaps across the country starting in late May or early June. Post-monsoon season lasts from October to December. South India usually receives more precipitation. Monsoon rains begin to withdraw from North India at the beginning of October. The types of Indian climate are responsible for the variation of weather in different parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Q3 ) Organise the following four-directed instructional sessions choosing appropriate topics from Social Studies curriculum
a) Debate
b) Panel Discussion
Prepare a report mentioning planning, organization, and instructional benefits of these sessions.

Solution: Debate planning, organization, and instructional benefits:
Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive and representational argument. Debate is a broader form of argument than logical argument, which only examines consistency from axiom, and factual argument, which only examines what is or isn't the case or rhetoric which is a technique of persuasion. Though logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the art of persuasion, in debating, one side often prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue, which is far more subtle and strategic.
In a formal debating contest, there are rules for people to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact. Informal debate is a common occurrence, the quality and depth of a debate improves with knowledge and skill of its participants as debaters. Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts engage in debates. The outcome of a debate may be decided by audience vote, by judges, or by some combination of the two. Although this implies that facts are based on consensus, which is not factual. Formal debates between candidates for elected office, such as the leaders debates and the U.S. presidential election debates, are common in democracies.
The major goal of the study of debate as a method or art is to develop one's ability to play from either position with equal ease. To inexperienced debaters, some propositions appear easier to defend or to destroy; to experienced debaters, any proposition can be defended or destroyed after the same amount of preparation time, usually quite short. Lawyers argue forcefully on behalf of their client, even if the facts appear against them. However one large misconception about debate is that it is all about strong beliefs; it is not.

Panel discussion planning, organization, and instructional benefits:
Panel discussion for example, if an issue is too complex for one person to handle, a panel may be covered so a group of specialists can speak. Or perhaps the audience need to introduced or exposed to various people or viewpoints at the same session.Panel discussions, however, differ from team presentations. Their purpose is different. In a team presentation, the group presents agreed-upon views; in a panel discussion, the purpose is to present different views. Also in a team presentations, usually speakers stand as they speak; in panel discussions, usually speakers sit the whole time. In panel discussion each speaker prepares separately, the other speakers here one another for the time at the session itself.

Technically, a panel discussion consists of questions and answers only, and a symposium consists of a series of prepared speeches, followed by questions and answers. The compare must monitor time and manage questions. If each participant is making a speech for a set period of time, he should signal the speakers at the one minute to go mark and at the stop mark. If a speakers goes more than one or two minute he can stop them to gave the equal rights to each speakers. The compare must be a biased person; he is neither in nor against the topic.At the end the compare should summarize the discussion and thank the panel members

A panel discussion is designed to provide an opportunity for a group to hear several people knowledgeable about a specific issue or topic present information and discuss personal views. A panel discussion may help the audience further clarify and evaluate their positions regarding specific issues or topics being discussed and increase their understanding of the positions of others.

How Organise Panel Discussion:

   1. Identify, or help participants identify, an issue or topic that involves an important conflict in values and/or interests. The issue or topic may be set forth as a topical question, a hypothetical incident, a student experience, an actual case, etc.
   2. Select panelists who are well informed about and have specific points of view regarding the issue or topic. A panel discussion that includes three to five panelists is usually most workable. Select a leader or moderator.
   3. Indicate to panelists the objectives the panel discussion is designed to promote and allow-time for panel members to prepare for the discussion. In some situations ten or fifteen minutes may be sufficient time for preparation while in other situations, panel members may need to prepare several weeks in advance of the scheduled discussion.
   4. Decide upon the format the panel discussion will follow. Various formats are appropriate. The following procedures have been used effectively:

      a. The leader or moderator introduces the topic and the panelists present their views and opinions regarding the issue or topic for a set amount of time.
      b. The panelists discuss the issue or topic with each other by asking questions or reacting to the views and opinions of other panel members. A specific amount of time should be established.
      c. The leader or moderator closes the discussion and provides a summary of panel presentations and discussion.
      d. The leader or moderator calls for a forum period during which the members of the class may participate by addressing questions to various panel members or by voicing their views and opinions. The forum period should be conducted by the panel leader or moderator.

Principal Responsibilities of the Instructor

   1. Identify, or help participants identify, issues or topics upon which to base a panel discussion.
   2. Insure that all panelists and the moderator are familiar with the procedures for panel discussion in advance of the discussion itself so that they will be able to fulfill the responsibilities of their roles.
   3. Assist panelists and participants (when necessary) in preparation for the discussion by directing them to various source materials, authorities in the field, etc.
   4. Help participants understand the need for fair procedures in discussing an issue or topic, e.g., the freedom to discuss an issue, the obligation to listen to other points of view, the need for orderly, courteous discussion, etc.

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